Retrieve information associated with lowest n values
To retrieve data that are corresponding to the smallest, 2nd smallest, or nth smallest value in a list, table or row in Excel, you can use an INDEX and MATCH formula together with the SMALL function.
How to retrieve information associated with lowest n values?
To find out the Olympics Men's 100m Sprint record during 1996-2020 and associated information in the table as shown above, you can first use the SAMLL function to find the lowest value in the time range. And feed the result to the MATCH function to find the correct row of the value. The INDEX function will then retrieve the value at the corresponding row.
√ Note: This is an array formula that requires you to enter with Ctrl + Shift + Enter.
- return_range: The range that INDEX return the information corresponding to the lowest n value from. Here refers to the winner or year range.
- n: Indicate the lowest n values. To find the lowest value, set n as 1; to find the 2nd lowest value, set n as 2.
- lookup_array: The range where SMALL and MATCH retrieve and locate the lowest n value. Here refers to the time range.
To find out the Olympics Men's 100m Sprint record during 1996-2020, please copy or enter the formulas below in the cell G5, and press Enter to get the result:
To find out the associated information about the Olympics Men's 100m Sprint record during 1996-2020, please copy or enter the formulas below in the cells G6 and G7, and press Enter to get the results:
Explanation of the formula
Here we use the formula below as an example:
- SMALL(D6:D12,1): The SMALL function retrieves the 1st lowest value from the time range D6:D12 to get the record, which is 9.63.
- MATCH(SMALL(D6:D12,1),D6:D12,0) = MATCH(9.63,D6:D12,0): The match_type 0 asks the MATCH function to find the position of the exact value 9.63 in the time range D6:D12 to locate the row of its corresponding information. The function will retrieve 3 since 9.63 is at the 3rd position of the time column.
- INDEX(C6:C12,MATCH(SMALL(D6:D12,1),D6:D12,0)) = INDEX(C6:C12,3): The INDEX function returns the 3rd value in the winner range C6:C12, which is Usain Bolt.
Excel INDEX function
The Excel INDEX function returns the displayed value based on a given position from a range or an array.
Excel MATCH function
The Excel MATCH function searches for a specific value in a range of cells, and returns the relative position of the value.
Lookup next largest match with INDEX and MATCH
To find the next largest match number, or we say the smallest value that is greater than or equal to the specific number in a range of numeric values in Excel, you can use an INDEX and MATCH formula with -1 as the match type.
Lookup closest match value with multiple criteria
In some cases, you may need to lookup the closest or approximate match value based on more than one criteria. With the combination of INDEX, MATCH and IF functions, you can quickly get it done in Excel.
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