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Excel COMPLEX function

The COMPLEX function converts real and imaginary coefficients to a complex number of the form x + yi or x + yj.


COMPLEX(real_num, i_num, [suffix])


  • Real_num (required): The real coefficient.
  • I_number (required): The imaginary coefficient.
  • Suffix (optional): The suffix for the imaginary coefficient. It can be lowercase “i” or “j”. If omitted, the default is “i”.


1. A complex number is a combination of a real number and an imaginary number.
2. The #VALUE! error occurs if any of the following conditions is met:
-- Either of the supplied arguments “real_number” and “i_num” is nonnumeric.
-- “Suffix” is any character other than “i” or “j”.

Return value

It returns a complex number as text.


As shown in the table below, to convert the real coefficient and the imaginary coefficient with given suffix, you can do as follows.

Select a cell (says E6 in this case), enter the formula below and press the Enter key to get the first complex number. Select this result cell and then drag its AutoFill Handle down to get other complex numbers.


Related Functions

Excel BITOR function
The IMABS function gets the absolute value of a complex number in the form x + yi or x + yj.

Excel imaginary function
The IMAGINARY function gets the imaginary coefficient of a complex number in the form x + yi or x + yj.

Excel impower function
The IMPOWER function returns a complex number raised to a given power.

Excel improduct Function
The IMPRODUCT function returns the product of 1 to 255 complex numbers in x + yi or x + yj text format.

Excel BITAND function
The IMREAL function returns the real coefficient of a complex number in the form x + yi or x + yj.

Excel IMSUB function
The IMSUB function returns the difference of two complex numbers in x + yi or x + yj text format.

Excel IMSUM function
The IMSUM function returns the sum of two or more complex numbers in x + yi or x + yj text format.

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