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Excel COVAR Function

The COVAR function returns the covariance, the average of the products of deviations of two sets of values.

Note: The COVAR function has been replaced with COVARIANCE.P and COVARIANCE.S with improved accuracy. Although COVAR is still available in current versions of Excel, you should consider using the new functions from now on, because COVAR may not be available in Excel’s future versions.

covar function 1


=COVAR(array1, array2)


  • array1 (required): The first range of numbers.
  • array2 (required): The second range of numbers.

Return Value

The COVAR function returns a numeric value.

Function Notes

  • array1 and array2 must be numbers, or names, arrays or references that contain numbers.
  • array1 and array2 must be equal in length. Otherwise, COVAR function returns #N/A error value.
  • If array1 or array2 contains text(s) or logical values or empty cells, COVAR function will ignore them.


To calculate the covariance for each data point of the two arrays as shown in the table below, please copy or enter the below formula in the result cell (E6), and press Enter to get the result.


covar function 2

Related functions

Excel COVARIANCE.P Function

The Excel COVARIANCE.P function returns the population variance of two data sets which is used to determine the relationship between two data sets.

Excel COVARIANCE.S Function

The Excel COVARIANCE.S function returns the sample variance of two data sets.

Excel CORREL Function

The CORREL function returns the correlation coefficient of two cell ranges, which can be used to determine the relationship between two properties.

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