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Excel ROMAN Function

doc workday.intl function 1

If you want to follow along with this tutorial, please download the example spreadsheet.

doc workday.intl function 1


The Excel ROMAN function converts an Arabic number to a Roman numeral as text.

Syntax and arguments

Formula syntax

ROMAN(number, [form])


  • Number: Required, the Arabic integer number used to be converted to a Roman number.
  • Form: Optional, he conversion type used in the function. If it is omitted, the function assumes it as 0, which means classic type, no abbreviated Roman numbers. If it is supplied, it must be one of below values:
  •  Value Type 
     0 (zero) or omitted  Classic form 
     1  More concise 
     2  More concise
     3  More concise
     4  Simplified form 
     TRUE   Classic form
     FALSE   Simplified form

Return Value

The ROMAN function returns to a Roman numeral as text.


#NAME? error value occurs when argument number is non numeric value.

#VALUE! error value occurs when

--Argument number > 3999, or < 0

--Argument form is not the one of values 0,1,2,3,4,TRUE or FALSE.


The ROMAN function truncated decimal number to integer number, for example, ROMAN(1.6)=I.


Excel 2003

Usage and Examples

Example: basic usage

The Arabic number is in B4, to convert it to Roman number in different forms in cell D4:D8, please enter formula as this:

=ROMAN($B$4,D4)//or directly use the number and form into the function =ROMAN(1999,0)

Press Enter key to get the result, then drag autofill handle down cells to get Roman numbers in other forms.

doc workday.intl function 1

Relative Functions:

  • Excel FLOOR Function
    The FLOOR function rounds a given number down to the nearest multiple of the specified significance.

  • Excel FLOOR.MATH Function
    The Excel FLOOR.MATH function rounds a given number down to the nearest integer or nearest multiple of the specified significance.

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Comments (1)
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This comment was minimized by the moderator on the site
The form parameter is just weird. My findings are:
1 - uses VL for 45, VC for 95, LD for 450, LM for 950
2 - also uses IL for 49, IC for 99, XD for 490, XM for 990
3 - also uses VD for 495, VM for 995
4 - also uses ID for 499, IM for 999

All of these are nonstandard. Why the function's been designed this way is anyone's guess.
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