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Excel COVARIANCE.S function

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The Excel COVARIANCE.S function returns the sample variance of two data sets.

Syntax and arguments

Formula syntax



  • Array1: Required, the first range of numbers.
  • Array2: Required, the second range of numbers.


1. Array 1 and array 2 must be numbers, names, arrays or references that contain numbers.

2. Array 1 and array 2 must be equal in length, otherwise, COVARIANCE.S function returns #N/A error value.

3. If array 1 or array 2 contains text(s) or logical values or empty cells, COVARIANCE.S function will ignore them.

4. If either array 1 or array 2 is empty, the COVARIANCE.S function returns #DIV/0! error value.


Excel 2010 and later versions.

Usage and Examples

Basic usage

Here are two arrays in range B3:B8 and C3:C8, to get the relative population covariance, please, use the formula as this:


Press Enter key.
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Other Functions:

  • Excel COVARIANCE.P Function
    The Excel COVARIANCE.P function returns the population variance of two data sets which is used to determine the relationship between two data sets.

  • Excel BETADIST Function
    The Excel BETADIST function (Excel 2010) returns the beta distribution which is usually used to study the percentage variation of something across samples.

  • Excel NORM.S.DIST Function
    The NORM.S.DIST calculates and returns the standard normal cumulative distribution function or probability density function of a value for an arithmetic mean of 0 and standard deviation of 1

  • Excel NORM.S.INV Function
    The NORM.S.INV calculates and returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution that has an arithmetic mean of 0 and standard deviation of 1 with a given probability.

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